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But where did the slots that we know so well today evolve from? The history of slot machines is a story of pioneers who altered the way people have gambled over the past century and a bit.
You can still see evidence of the early slot machines in new video slots made today. Let's take a trip down memory lane and explore the fast-changing history of the most popular gambling game in the world.
New York-based company Sittman and Pitt created a poker gambling machine that was made up of five drums displaying 10 different cards on each.
You had to pull the lever on the side to spin the reels. The better the poker hand, the more you won. The machine didn't have a payout mechanism so wins had to be paid at the bar, often in the form of free drinks or smokes.
This is thought to be the earliest machine that resembles the slots we know today. Car mechanic Charles Fey is widely regarded as the inventor of the first mechanical slot machine, although there is quite a bit discrepancy surrounding the year he made the first cast iron Liberty Bell.
It was the first slot machine of its kind to feature an automatic payout feature. The mechanics needed to be simplified, which is why it was made up of three spinning reels instead of five.
Each reel featured hearts, diamonds, spades, horseshoes and liberty bells. You'd pull the lever to spin this pulled a spring inside the machine and the reels would spin before coming to a halt.
Fey also invented a number of other gambling machines and the 'trade check separator' that was able to reject fake coins.
Fey was born in Germany in before moving to the US as a young man to work as an engineer and mechanic. His work in France and England on early intercom and nautical instruments had marked Fey out as a genius with mechanics.
Like many pioneers, Charles Fey's work on slot machines has been overshadowed somewhat by rivals who took his ideas and ran with them.
Because of the gaming laws in Fey's home state of California, he was unable to get a patent for his machine. The Sitman and Pitt of Brooklyn, New York , U.
It contained five drums holding a total of 50 card faces and was based on poker. This machine proved extremely popular and soon many bars in the city had one or more of the machines.
They inserted the currency and pulled the lever which turned the drums and the cards they held, while the player hoped a good poker hand.
There was no direct payment mechanism, so a pair of kings might get the player a free beer, whereas a Royal Flush cigars or drinks. The awards were entirely depended on the offers in each local installation.
Other early machines, such as trade stimulator, were distributing profits in the form of chewing gum with fruit flavors, depending on the tastes which appear on the cards of the game.
The popular cherry and melon symbols derive from this machine. The symbol BAR, most common and widespread on slots came from the company logo Bell-Gum Fruit.
The payment of food prizes was a commonly used technique to avoid laws against gambling in the States. Because all PRNGs must eventually repeat their number sequence  and, if the period is short or the PRNG is otherwise flawed, an advanced player may be able to "predict" the next result.
Having access to the PRNG code and seed values, Ronald Dale Harris , a former slot machine programmer, discovered equations for specific gambling games like Keno that allowed him to predict what the next set of selected numbers would be based on the previous games played.
Most machines are designed to defeat this by generating numbers even when the machine is not being played so the player cannot tell where in the sequence they are, even if they know how the machine was programmed.
This is known as the "theoretical payout percentage" or RTP, "return to player". The minimum theoretical payout percentage varies among jurisdictions and is typically established by law or regulation.
The winning patterns on slot machines — the amounts they pay and the frequencies of those payouts — are carefully selected to yield a certain fraction of the money paid to the "house" the operator of the slot machine while returning the rest to the players during play.
Within some EGM development organizations this concept is referred to simply as "par". Play now! A slot machine's theoretical payout percentage is set at the factory when the software is written.
Changing the payout percentage after a slot machine has been placed on the gaming floor requires a physical swap of the software or firmware , which is usually stored on an EPROM but may be loaded onto non-volatile random access memory NVRAM or even stored on CD-ROM or DVD , depending on the capabilities of the machine and the applicable regulations.
Based on current technology, this is a time-consuming process and as such is done infrequently. Other jurisdictions, including Nevada, randomly audit slot machines to ensure that they contain only approved software.
Historically, many casinos, both online and offline, have been unwilling to publish individual game RTP figures, making it impossible for the player to know whether they are playing a "loose" or a "tight" game.
Since the turn of the century some information regarding these figures has started to come into the public domain either through various casinos releasing them—primarily this applies to online casinos—or through studies by independent gambling authorities.
The return to player is not the only statistic that is of interest. The probabilities of every payout on the pay table is also critical.
For example, consider a hypothetical slot machine with a dozen different values on the pay table. However, the probabilities of getting all the payouts are zero except the largest one.
Also, most people would not win anything, and having entries on the paytable that have a return of zero would be deceptive.
As these individual probabilities are closely guarded secrets, it is possible that the advertised machines with high return to player simply increase the probabilities of these jackpots.
The added advantage is that these large jackpots increase the excitement of the other players. The table of probabilities for a specific machine is called the Probability and Accounting Report or PAR sheet, also PARS commonly understood as Paytable and Reel Strips.
Mathematician Michael Shackleford revealed the PARS for one commercial slot machine, an original International Gaming Technology Red White and Blue machine.
This game, in its original form, is obsolete, so these specific probabilities do not apply. He only published the odds after a fan of his sent him some information provided on a slot machine that was posted on a machine in the Netherlands.
The psychology of the machine design is quickly revealed. There are 13 possible payouts ranging from to 2, The payout comes every 8 plays.
The payout comes every 33 plays, whereas the payout comes every plays. Most players assume the likelihood increases proportionate to the payout.
The one mid-size payout that is designed to give the player a thrill is the payout. It is programmed to occur an average of once every plays.
The payout is high enough to create excitement, but not high enough that it makes it likely that the player will take their winnings and abandon the game.
In contrast the payout occurs only on average of once every 6, plays. The player who continues to feed the machine is likely to have several mid-size payouts, but unlikely to have a large payout.
He quits after he is bored or has exhausted his bankroll. Despite their confidentiality, occasionally a PAR sheet is posted on a website.
They have limited value to the player, because usually a machine will have 8 to 12 different possible programs with varying payouts. In addition, slight variations of each machine e.
The casino operator can choose which EPROM chip to install in any particular machine to select the payout desired. The result is that there is not really such a thing as a high payback type of machine, since every machine potentially has multiple settings.
From October to February , columnist Michael Shackleford obtained PAR sheets for five different nickel machines; four IGT games Austin Powers , Fortune Cookie , Leopard Spots and Wheel of Fortune and one game manufactured by WMS; Reel 'em In.
Without revealing the proprietary information, he developed a program that would allow him to determine with usually less than a dozen plays on each machine which EPROM chip was installed.
Then he did a survey of over machines in 70 different casinos in Las Vegas. He averaged the data, and assigned an average payback percentage to the machines in each casino.
The resultant list was widely publicized for marketing purposes especially by the Palms casino which had the top ranking.
One reason that the slot machine is so profitable to a casino is that the player must play the high house edge and high payout wagers along with the low house edge and low payout wagers.
Other bets have a higher house edge, but the player is rewarded with a bigger win up to thirty times in craps. The player can choose what kind of wager he wants to make.
A slot machine does not afford such an opportunity. Theoretically, the operator could make these probabilities available, or allow the player to choose which one so that the player is free to make a choice.
However, no operator has ever enacted this strategy. Different machines have different maximum payouts, but without knowing the odds of getting the jackpot, there is no rational way to differentiate.
In many markets where central monitoring and control systems are used to link machines for auditing and security purposes, usually in wide area networks of multiple venues and thousands of machines, player return must usually be changed from a central computer rather than at each machine.
A range of percentages is set in the game software and selected remotely. In , the Nevada Gaming Commission began working with Las Vegas casinos on technology that would allow the casino's management to change the game, the odds, and the payouts remotely.
The change cannot be done instantaneously, but only after the selected machine has been idle for at least four minutes. After the change is made, the machine must be locked to new players for four minutes and display an on-screen message informing potential players that a change is being made.
Some varieties of slot machines can be linked together in a setup sometimes known as a "community" game. The most basic form of this setup involves progressive jackpots that are shared between the bank of machines, but may include multiplayer bonuses and other features.
In some cases multiple machines are linked across multiple casinos. In these cases, the machines may be owned by the manufacturer, who is responsible for paying the jackpot.
The casinos lease the machines rather than owning them outright. Casinos in New Jersey, Nevada, and South Dakota now offer multi-state progressive jackpots, which now offer bigger jackpot pools.
Mechanical slot machines and their coin acceptors were sometimes susceptible to cheating devices and other scams.
One historical example involved spinning a coin with a short length of plastic wire. The weight and size of the coin would be accepted by the machine and credits would be granted.
However, the spin created by the plastic wire would cause the coin to exit through the reject chute into the payout tray. This particular scam has become obsolete due to improvements in newer slot machines.
Another obsolete method of defeating slot machines was to use a light source to confuse the optical sensor used to count coins during payout.
Modern slot machines are controlled by EPROM computer chips and, in large casinos, coin acceptors have become obsolete in favor of bill acceptors.
These machines and their bill acceptors are designed with advanced anti-cheating and anti-counterfeiting measures and are difficult to defraud.
Early computerized slot machines were sometimes defrauded through the use of cheating devices, such as the "slider", "monkey paw", "lightwand" and "the tongue".
Malfunctioning electronic slot machines are capable of indicating jackpot winnings far in excess of those advertised. In the United States, the public and private availability of slot machines is highly regulated by state governments.
Many states have established gaming control boards to regulate the possession and use of slot machines and other form of gaming.
Nevada is the only state that has no significant restrictions against slot machines both for public and private use. In New Jersey , slot machines are only allowed in hotel casinos operated in Atlantic City.
Several states Indiana , Louisiana and Missouri allow slot machines as well as any casino-style gambling only on licensed riverboats or permanently anchored barges.
Since Hurricane Katrina , Mississippi has removed the requirement that casinos on the Gulf Coast operate on barges and now allows them on land along the shoreline.
Delaware allows slot machines at three horse tracks; they are regulated by the state lottery commission. In Wisconsin, bars and taverns are allowed to have up to five machines.
These machines usually allow a player to either take a payout, or gamble it on a double-or-nothing "side game".
The territory of Puerto Rico places significant restrictions on slot machine ownership, but the law is widely flouted and slot machines are common in bars and coffeeshops.
In regards to tribal casinos located on Native American reservations , slot machines played against the house and operating independently from a centralized computer system are classified as "Class III" gaming by the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act IGRA , and sometimes promoted as "Vegas-style" slot machines.
As a workaround, some casinos may operate slot machines as "Class II" games—a category that includes games where players play exclusively against at least one other opponent and not the house, such as bingo or any related games such as pull-tabs.
In these cases, the reels are an entertainment display with a pre-determined outcome based on a centralized game played against other players.
Under the IGRA, Class II games are regulated by individual tribes and the National Indian Gaming Commission , and do not require any additional approval if the state already permits tribal gaming.
Some historical race wagering terminals operate in a similar manner, with the machines using slots as an entertainment display for outcomes paid using the parimutuel betting system, based on results of randomly-selected, previously-held horse races with the player able to view selected details about the race and adjust their picks before playing the credit, or otherwise use an auto-bet system.
Alaska , Arizona , Arkansas , Kentucky , Maine , Minnesota , Nevada , Ohio , Rhode Island , Texas , Utah , Virginia , and West Virginia place no restrictions on private ownership of slot machines.
Conversely, in Connecticut , Hawaii , Nebraska , South Carolina , and Tennessee , private ownership of any slot machine is completely prohibited. The remaining states allow slot machines of a certain age typically 25—30 years or slot machines manufactured before a specific date.
For a detailed list of state-by-state regulations on private slot machine ownership, see U. The Government of Canada has minimal involvement in gambling beyond the Canadian Criminal Code.
In essence, the term "lottery scheme" used in the code means slot machines, bingo and table games normally associated with a casino.
These fall under the jurisdiction of the province or territory without reference to the federal government; in practice, all Canadian provinces operate gaming boards that oversee lotteries, casinos and video lottery terminals under their jurisdiction.
OLG piloted a classification system for slot machines at the Grand River Raceway developed by University of Waterloo professor Kevin Harrigan, as part of its PlaySmart initiative for responsible gambling.
Inspired by nutrition labels on foods, they displayed metrics such as volatility and frequency of payouts. In Australia "Poker Machines" or "pokies"  are officially termed "gaming machines".
In Australia, gaming machines are a matter for state governments, so laws vary between states. Gaming machines are found in casinos approximately one in each major city , pubs and clubs in some states usually sports, social, or RSL clubs.
The first Australian state to legalize this style of gambling was New South Wales , when in they were made legal in all registered clubs in the state.
There are suggestions that the proliferation of poker machines has led to increased levels of problem gambling ; however, the precise nature of this link is still open to research.
In the Australian Productivity Commission reported that nearly half Australia's gaming machines were in New South Wales. Australia ranks 8th in total number of gaming machines after Japan, U.
This primarily is because gaming machines have been legal in the state of New South Wales since ; over time, the number of machines has grown to 97, at December , including the Australian Capital Territory.
By way of comparison, the U. State of Nevada, which legalised gaming including slots several decades before N. This new law also banned machines with an automatic play option.
A spin resulting in three Liberty Bells in a row gave the biggest payoff, a grand total of fifty cents or ten nickels. Other Charles Fey machines include the Draw Power, and Three Spindle and the Klondike.
In , Charles Fey invented the first draw poker machine. Charles Fey was also the inventor of the trade check separator, which was used in the Liberty Bell.
The hole in the middle of the trade check allowed a detecting pin to distinguish fake nickels or slugs from real nickels.
The demand for Liberty Bell slot machines was huge. Fey could not build them fast enough in his small shop. Gambling supply manufacturers tried to buy the manufacturing and distribution rights to the Liberty Bell, however, Charles Fey refused to sell.The origins of slot machines can be traced back to the late 19th Century. The first slot machine was developed by the New York based company, Sittman and Pitt in The game had 5 drums with a total of 50 playing cards. The machine could be found in many bars, and cost a nickel to play. In , on the other side of the United States, a San Francisco-based inventor named Charles August Fey invented the first version of what we’d recognize as a classic slot machine. Shortly after this, he built the , which was so successful that he quit his job to build them full time. The Liberty Bell is arguably the first slot machine for gambling with automatic payouts. It was invented in by Bavarian-born Charles Fey in San Francisco, California. This slot machine simulated the card game of poker, having three spinning reels each with five symbols: diamonds, hearts, horseshoes, spades, and an image of the Liberty Bell. – The First Slot. This was the year when the first true slot machine was invented by Charles Fey in California. It had only 3 reels, it had much simpler mechanism, a total of just five reel symbols and could give automatic payouts. The biggest win was ten nickels. It was named Liberty Bell and had much greater success than its predecessor. Charles Fey Makes the Liberty Bell Car mechanic Charles Fey is widely regarded as the inventor of the first mechanical slot machine, although there is quite a bit discrepancy surrounding the year he made the first cast iron Liberty Bell. It was the first slot machine of its kind to feature an automatic payout feature. It was Charles Fey who created the first slot machine in The history of slots began in when Charles Fey invented the slot machine. Charles Fey. A washing machine invented in france in the early s was called the The first slot machine was invented by charles fey in what year, casino pune, casinos. SunsetRavens Forum - Mitgliedsprofil > Aktivität Seite. Benutzer: First slot machine invented year pawn stars, first slot machine ever made, Titel: New Member. Leupold 7eLearning Forum - Mitgliedsprofil > Aktivität Seite. Benutzer: When was the first slot machine invented pawn stars, when was the first slot machine.